forexite history of basketball
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Forexite history of basketball

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In , two school newspaper articles were published chronicling separate recordings of collegiate basketball games facing an opposing college team. The first recorded intercollegiate game between women took place between Stanford University and University of California at Berkeley in Louis as a demonstration event. Wheelchair basketball in Cambodia changed these women's lives.

As the sport continued its rapid spread, professional leagues began to form across the United States. Basketball fans cheered on their new hometown teams. The first professional league was the National Basketball League NBL formed in , comprised of six teams in the northeast. The league only lasted about five years. After it dissolved in , the league would be reintroduced 33 years later in with an entirely new support system, with Goodyear, Firestone, and General Electric corporations as the league owners, and 13 teams.

While professional sports leagues gained nationwide attention, college basketball was also a major fixture. The first collegiate basketball national champion was the University of Oregon. The team defeated Ohio State University.

Like most of the United States in the early to mid s, basketball was segregated. All-black teams were often referred to as colored quints or Negro cagers. They were amateur, semi-professional, and professional. Of the more than 1, collegiate basketball teams across all divisions of the NCAA, 68 teams play in the annual March Madness tournament. The best college teams from each conference around the country compete for a place in the Sweet 16, Elite Eight, Final Four and, ultimately, the national championship.

Though basketball might not be played the same way as it was when Naismith invented it—peach baskets have been replaced with nets, metal hoops and plexiglass blackboards—its evolution proves that the game has transcended a century. All rights reserved. Share Tweet Email. Read This Next For this Somali refugee, beauty has a purpose. Simulating mph hurricanes to make storm-resistant homes. Environment Simulating mph hurricanes to make storm-resistant homes To prepare for extreme weather, Florida International University plans to simulate some of the world's most catastrophic storms.

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Earl Lloyd, playing for Washington, became the first black player to play in an NBA game, as his team was scheduled to begin the season before Clifton or Cooper's teams. Even in college, where players aren't paid, big business has drastically changed the game. Even as the league changed its rules, and as Mikan's scoring dipped, the Lakers rolled. However, the game itself was becoming harder to watch. The league had a distinct lack of rules regarding foul limits and stalling; games became knockdown, drag-out affairs, with the end of games often becoming free-throw shooting contests.

The playoffs averaged 80 free throws per game; today, the average is a little over In a famous game, Fort Wayne beat Minnesota , while a five-overtime game between Rochester and Indianapolis saw the team with the ball at the start of the period hold it the entire time, shooting only at the last second in an attempt to win, for all five OT periods. These methods were turning away fans. Jack Molinas Caught Gambling As a further blow to the league's public image, Jack Molinas, a rookie for Fort Wayne, was caught betting on his own team, the first time something of that nature had surfaced in professional basketball.

Even though Molinas was banned from the sport, and the president of the league, Maurice Podoloff, prohibited gambling in the sport, the damage was done. Shot Clock Introduced in Pro Game In , the league, and more specifically one man, helped revolutionize the sport and save pro basketball. Danny Biasone, owner of the Syracuse Nationals, introduced the concept of the team foul limit and the shot clock.

The team foul limit said that only a certain number of fouls could be committed in a single quarter, and after the limit had been reached, any foul would lead to free throw shots, rather than just shooting fouls fouls committed while a player is in the act of shooting the ball. This helped the sport, but it was the shot clock that really changed the game. Biasone created the second clock, which counted down at the start of each possession.

The team with the ball had to shoot it within that 24 seconds, or give the ball to the other team. If someone shot the ball, it hit the rim, and was rebounded by the same team, the shot clock would reset; fouls also restarted the clock. The results were immediate: scoring increased from Average scoring cracked the mark by Biasone arrived at 24 seconds by examining some of his favorite games over the years.

He discovered they generally had around 60 shots by each team for a total of shots. If you shoot every 24 seconds over a minute game, you arrive at shots. Meanwhile, college basketball would not institute the shot clock until , with a second clock which it reduced to 35 in George Mikan Retires was also momentous in that it featured the retirement of its biggest star, George Mikan.

Mikan left the Lakers after their fifth championship, and without the big man in the middle, the Lakers dynasty ended. That season, Biasone's Syracuse team won the title, a fitting payoff for the owner who changed the sport. A year later, in the season, the league first began awarding a Most Valuable Player trophy, with St. Louis Hawk Bob Pettit winning the first award. Russell, drafted third overall by St. Louis, stood 6'10'', but somehow played even taller. His prowess around the rim led the college game to change its rules regarding offensive goaltending.

But his accomplishments in college were nothing compared to what he'd do in the NBA. Russell is regularly included in the conversation for greatest player of all time - generally, only Jordan tops him. In 13 seasons, Russell won 11 championships with the Celtics two as player-coach, the only person ever to win even one title with that role. He holds the records for most rebounds in a single half 32 , most rebounds in a Finals game 40 and the highest rebounds per game RPG for the playoffs, while he is second in career RPG.

More than just statistics and awards, however, Russell helped change the game. His style of play - rebounding and shot-blocking, a complimentary player, rather than one who would just take over a game - hadn't really been seen before out of a player his size. Additionally, he became one of the league's superstars, and was really one of the first black players to become that popular.

The NBA's First and Second Teams work like this: each season, a group of basketball reporters and writers select the best player at each position - point guard, shooting guard, small forward, power forward and center - which make up the First Team.

The Second Team is comprised of the next best guys for each position. Wilt Chamberlain While Russell was all about the team game evidenced by the Celtics' many titles , Wilt Chamberlain was about stats. Also routinely regarded as one of the greatest to ever play the game, the knock against Wilt was his selfishness. He is often said to care more about his numbers than wins; this is reflected in his career accomplishments.

Chamberlain holds the records for career rebounds, career plus point games , most points in a single game the famous point game in , most rebounds in a single game 55 , most consecutive scoring titles 7 and is fourth in career points and minutes. But Wilt only won two titles, and one, with the Lakers in , was at the tail end of his career, when he was no longer the best player on the court in any given game. Philadelphia Warriors Play Boston Celtics Perhaps the best example of the differences between the two comes from the very first game they played against each other.

Wilt outscored Russell 50 to 22, but Russell outrebounded him 35 to 28, and the Celtics won the game. Still, despite the arguments made for either side in the debate over who was better, these two players, different as night and day, helped put the NBA on the map, popularizing the sport to levels it hadn't even approached before they came along.

Television Revenues Increase As the league began coming into its own, its popularity increased, and with that popularity came increased revenue, both from higher attendance and, in particular, television revenues. Chamberlain helped this a great deal: following his spectacular rookie season, in which he surpassed all expectations, NBC expanded its coverage to include Saturday and Sunday matinees.

With more money coming in, rifts between players and owners started to worsen. The night of the game, the All-Stars informed commissioner Walter Kennedy two hours before tip-off they would not play the game without a pension plan in place with the owners. ABC, who was broadcasting the game, told Kennedy they would scrap their entire contract if the players didn't play, and Kennedy, just fifteen minutes before the game started, told the players he would facilitate an agreement.

It was the first major victory for the NBA Player's Association which had actually been founded back in the s , and really, the first victory for a player's union in American sports history. The NBA Player's Association became the first player's union to engage in a collective bargaining agreement with its league's owners.

The breaking of the color barrier in saw African-Americans in the game, and a decade later, the game's biggest stars were almost entirely black. With the retirement of Bob Cousy, a legendary white Celtic player, in the season, and the retirement of legendary coach Red Auerbach who won a then-record nine titles with Boston , the only big NBA stars who were white were Jerry Lucas and Jerry West.

Otherwise, the game was dominated by its black stars, guys like Russell, Chamberlain, Elgin Baylor and Oscar Robertson who, in the season, averaged a triple-double, meaning he finished the season averaging double-digits in three statistical categories, in this case points, rebounds and assists. No player had done it before or has done it since. The American public did not respond to these changes entirely positively; while the 60s were a time of great integration in the U.

Still, the game nonetheless began to really flourish, with attendance topping 2. Lew Alcindor Even as some of its stars began retiring Russell in '69 and Chamberlain in '72 , one of the games biggest and greatest players emerged.

A young man named Lew Alcindor had played for UCLA for three years at that time, freshman couldn't play college basketball. He was a part of a UCLA squad that, over the three years Alcindor played, won 88 games and lost only two, with one of those losses coming against the University of Houston in the first-ever nationally televised regular season college basketball game. He won three championships with the Bruins, and college basketball even outlawed the dunk for nine years because of Alcindor's domination with the shot.

He was drafted by the Milwaukee Bucks as the first overall choice in the draft, and in his first season was second in the league in scoring and third in rebounding, winning the Rookie of the Year award. Prior to the following season , Alcindor converted from Catholicism to Islam, changing his name to Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, the name he is more commonly known as.

By the time Jabbar finished his career, he held the record for points, blocked shots, playoff games and total games played. He still holds the records for points, with 38, The NBA, as a response, expanded, adding five more teams over three years and then three more teams in just the season alone. The NBA, desperate to keep the players in their league and away from the ABA, felt they had no choice but to pay increasingly high salaries.

Spencer Haywood However, it was the ABA's signing of a rookie in that ultimately forced a change. To that point in history, the NBA had a clause that forced its players to play four years of college basketball before they could be drafted into the NBA. The NBA saw this as giving the ABA a huge advantage in signing away top players, and a merger was agreed upon in However, the Player's Association objected to the merger, with a lawsuit nicknamed the Oscar Robertson suit, because Oscar was one of the most high-profile names involved filed that would last five years.

Haywood, meanwhile, jumped to the NBA after only a year in the ABA, and after successfully challenging their ban on drafting players without four years in college, was drafted by the Seattle Supersonics, permanently ending that ban. A few years later, in , Utah drafted Moses Malone, a center out of high school, ending the ban on drafting high school players, something that would last for over 30 years.

Between and , the NBA scoring average dropped from over points per game to just under ppg. By the summer of , the NBA was tired of waiting for the court case to end, and an agreement was reached. The NBA agreed in the merger to get rid of the reserve clause and allow free agency. Salaries began escalating even further. Kermit Washington Punch As the league added teams through expansion and the merger, and even as some of its biggest stars took the stage, all was not well with the league.

Drugs were becoming an increasing problem in the sport, particularly cocaine, and fighting was becoming more prevalent. Things escalated with the now-infamous Kermit Washington punch. In a game between the now Los Angeles Lakers and the Houston Rockets, a fight broke out, and Houston's Rudy Tomjanovich ran towards the brawl, only to be met with a punch by Lakers forward Kermit Washington's punch. The punch landed Tomjanovich in intensive care for two weeks, breaking his jaw, his nose, fracturing his face and cracking his skull so badly from hitting the ground that Tomjanovich could taste spinal fluid in his mouth.

The ferocity of the punch, combined with the fact that Washington was black and Tomjanovich was white did not help the league. Attendance had already been dropping, as had television ratings. CBS routinely tape-delayed its games, even playoff games, which meant most markets saw these games on TV after midnight. The NBA was in a significant down period. The show featured highlights from the various sporting events of the day, and significantly helped market the sport of basketball.

Cable was helping basketball limp back. Additionally, the NBA introduced the three-point line in the season, and though it takes a few seasons to really catch on, adds an exciting element to the game. Between the two, Bird and Magic would win six MVP awards in the s, with their two teams winning eight of the ten titles in the decade the Lakers winning five, with both Magic Johnson and Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, whom they acquired from Milwaukee in a trade.

As Bird's Celtics and Magic's Lakers battled each other throughout the 80s, the NBA began to recover from the disastrous years of the 70s. Salary Cap Introduced In , the league and the player's union signed a new collective bargaining agreement. The new CBA introduced two important components to the game: the first was a salary cap.

The other new element was a new drug policy, employing a "three strikes, you're out" method. The first strike came with a suspension, the second with a suspension and a team option of waiving the player, and the third a lifetime ban from the game though that was reviewable every two years. The NBA was becoming a booming business, primarily under the guidance of David Stern, a lawyer who became commissioner in after working for the NBA since , including as its chief negotiator in the ABA merger.

College Basketball Audience 25 Million While professional basketball began to flourish once again, college basketball was doing just as well. In the s, the viewing audience for the national championship game never dipped below 25 million.

Despite no age limit on coming out of school, no players went directly from high school to the NBA Draft from until - though a few enrolled in college, but never attended. While plenty of players attended college for a year or two before leaving for the pros, their presence in the college game helped continue college basketball's popularity in the U. College Teams Share Championship Spoils in the 80's Parity also helped college basketball in the 80s.

In the decade, only two teams won multiple championships, Indiana and Louisville, and those championships were each separated by six years. Danny Manning, considered one of the best college players of all time, won the championship with Kansas University, and was drafted first overall by the Los Angeles Clippers. College Team Underdogs College was also helped by its underdogs. Manning's Kansas team was nicknamed "Danny and the Miracles" because it wasn't viewed as a favorite going into the tournament, despite Manning's status as a top player in the game.

While the Lakers and Celtics dominated the professional basketball landscape, the NCAA tournament made for compelling viewing because the "best team" didn't always come out on top. Hakeem Olajuwon The draft deserves its own section, if only for the enormity of the outcome.

The first three picks that year went to, in order, Houston, Portland and Chicago. Hakeem Olajuwon, a 7-foot center from the University of Houston, came out a season early, after his junior year, and seemed a sure thing to go first overall.

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History of Basketball - The \

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