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These are most commonly made from the front end and engine of a motorcycle attached to a two-wheeled passenger area in back. Commercially produced models, such as the Indian Bajaj brand, are also employed. In Guatemala the commercial vehicles are referred to as tuk-tuks. Tuk-tuks operate, both as taxis and private vehicles, in Guatemala City, Guatemala, around the island town of Flores, Peten, in the mountain city of Antigua Guatemala, and in many small towns in the mountains.

Three-wheeled all-in-one tuk-tuks are used in the place of traditional taxis in most rural towns and villages. The mototaxi is the Ecuatorian version of the auto rickshaw. It is a common sight in the rural areas, towns and cities of Peru to see auto rickshaws, locally known as "mototaxis," "motokars", "taxi cholo", or "cholotaxi" lining up to pick up passengers as their fares are generally lower than car taxis.

They are also in the capital, Lima, but they are usually restricted to the peripheral districts. The "jungle" cities and towns in eastern Peru are famous for their prevalence of auto rickshaws. This vehicle, usually running on regular unleaded gasoline, is the main non-private transport vehicle, and is known as "motocarro", "mototaxi" or "tuk-tuk" for foreigners.

Many of the jungle areas of eastern Peru can be extremely noisy as a result of poorly maintained auto rickshaws and other 2 or 3-wheel vehicles, especially in high traffic or hilly areas. Auto-rickshaw brands such as the Indian-made Bajaj, which use GLP [a form of liquified petroleum gas which some car taxis also use] are much quieter.

As early as , Mr. Department of Transportation regulations. He was able to contract a manufacturer who could make imported tuk tuks that could meet all necessary federal regulations in the U. Original products were imported from Thailand and were gas propelled. Due to the changing regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency, the introduction of imported gas-propelled tuk tuks was short-lived. Due to such changes, in Tuk Tuk North America decided to go dormant in its importing of gas propelled tuk tuks into the U.

The line included eight models of "street legal" tuk tuks including passenger, utility, and delivery vehicles. Phillip Tallant. With this advancement grew the opportunity for formation of Tuk Tuk of America, a company by which partnering affiliates across the U. Initially, auto rickshaw drivers in Delhi had to wait in long queues for CNG refueling, but the situation has improved with the increase of CNG stations.

Certain local governments are pushing for four-stroke engines instead of the current two-stroke versions. Typical mileage for an Indian-made auto rickshaw is around 35 kilometers per liter of petrol about 2. Pakistan has passed a similar law prohibiting auto rickshaws in certain areas. CNG auto rickshaws have started to appear in huge numbers in many Pakistani cities. In January the Sri Lankan government also banned two-stroke trishaws to reduce air pollution.

In the Philippines there are projects to convert carburated two-stroke engines to direct-injected via Envirofit technology. In Vigan City majority of tricycles-for-hire as of are powered by motorcycles with four-stroke engines, as tricycles with two-stroke motorcycles are prevented from receiving operating permits.

Direct injection is standard equipment on new machines in India. In March an international consortium coordinated by the International Centre for Hydrogen Energy Technologies initiated a two-year public-private partnership of local and international stakeholders aiming at operating a fleet of 15 hydrogen-fueled three-wheeled vehicles in New Delhi's Pragati Maidan complex. As of January , the project was upon completion. In the meantime, in October, , the Department of Transportation for the U.

Chassis were still being shipped in from Thailand, but now with the inclusion of all electrical components as manufactured only in the U. The Electro Technologies Tuk Tuks topped out at 40 miles per hour which perfectly addresses the needs of their design; niche urban mobile transportation. Traffic authorities in big cities try to implement mechanisms to reduce the resulting traffic slowing, but none have proven effective.

The MMW Tuk Tuk has a top speed of around 70 mph and with the introduction of the new turbo will have much improved acceleration, to allow for increased speed these Tuk Tuks have anti-roll bars and are fitted with disc brakes. The triangular form of the vehicle makes maneuvering easy, with the single front wheel negotiating the available gap, and the rear two wheels forcing a larger space. Care must be taken even at low speeds, however, because of the stability problems of three-wheeler vehicles with a single front wheel.

Such a "delta"-configuration three-wheeler can easily roll if the driver turns while braking. Due to their relatively low top-speed, auto rickshaws have never lent themselves to conventional road or street racing. However, their modest speed, simple construction and impressive fuel economy has endeared them to the international amateur adventuring community, most notably with the Rickshaw Run and also the Indian Autorickshaw Challenge, and even off-road racing with the Apecar competitions in Italy.

Auto rickshaws are also prominent in the fuel-poor London of A. A memorable tuk-tuk chase features in the Thai film Ong-Bak: Muay Thai Warrior, climaxing with many of them driving off the edge of an unfinished elevated expressway. Raghurajpur is a heritage crafts village in Puri district, Odisha, known for its master Pattachitra painters, an art form which dates back to 5 BC in the region and Gotipua dance troupes, the precursor to the Indian classical dance form of Odissi; it is also known as the birthplace of one of the finest Odissi exponents and Guru, Kelucharan Mohapatra.

Apart from that, the village is also home to crafts like Tussar paintings, palm leaf engravings, stone and wood carvings, wooden, cowdung and papier mache toys, and masks. It also has the distinction of the only place where the traditional decoration called Patas, used under the throne of Lord Jagannath and on the three chariots during the annual Rath Yatra festival, that takes place at pilgrimage town of Puri, some 14 km away, known for the Jagannath Temple.

Situated amidst groves of coconut, palm, mango and jack fruit, the main village has two streets with over houses, most decorated with mural paintings, where the painters reside and practice their pattachitra craft, besides many other that practices throughout the village, including traditional masks, stone idols, papier mache, sculptures, wooden toys.

The village also a series of temples dedicated not only to Bhuasuni, the local deity but also to various Hindu gods including, Radha Mohan, Gopinath, Raghunath, Laxminarayan and Gouranga. Around, it was developed as a heritage village by INTACH, and soon became a major rural tourist destination of the state, drawing tourist, both domestic and foreign to the village.

Villagers were also trained to provide heritage walks to the visitors by the organisation, and has since become a template for heritage tourism in the region. The pattachitra paintings are made over a piece of cloth known as Patta or a dried palm leaf, which is first painted with a mixture of chalk and gum.

Over the prepared surface, colorful and intricate pictures of various Gods, Goddesses, and mythological scenes with ornamentation of flowers, trees and animals are then painted. It is situated 14 km away from Hindu pilgrimage town of Puri, on the southern banks of river Bhargabi Bhargavi. Visitors from Puri take the Bhubaneswar road, near Chandanpur, on NH , and upon reaching the Chandanpur Bazaar, they can take a right turn to reach Raghurajpur.

The village is then around 1. The need for this kind of car, and its functional objectives, was formulated by the leader of Nazi Germany, Adolf Hitler, who wanted a cheap, simple car to be mass-produced for his country's new road network.

Hitler contracted Ferdinand Porsche in to design and build it. Porsche and his team took until to finalise the design. The influence on Porsche's design of other contemporary cars, such as the Tatra V and the work of Josef Ganz remains a subject of dispute. The result was one of the first rear-engined cars since the Brass Era. With 21,, produced, the Beetle is the longest-running and most-manufactured car of a single platform ever made.

Although designed in the s, the Beetle was only produced in significant numbers from on mass production had been put on hold during the Second World War when the model was internally designated the Volkswagen Type 1, and marketed simply as the Volkswagen or "People's Car". Later models were designated Volkswagen , , , or , the former three indicating engine displacement, the latter two derived from the type number.

For example, in France it was known as the Coccinelle French for ladybug. As Autobahn speeds increased in the postwar years, its output was boosted to 36, then 40 hp, the configuration that lasted through and became the "classic" Volkswagen motor. The Beetle ultimately gave rise to variants, including the Karmann Ghia, Type 2 and external coachbuilders.

The Beetle marked a significant trend, led by Volkswagen, Fiat, and Renault, whereby the rear-engine, rear-wheel drive layout increased from 2. In , Volkswagen's own front-wheel drive Golf model succeeded the Beetle. In , Volkswagen unveiled the Concept One, a "retro"-themed concept car with a resemblance to the original Beetle, and in introduced the "New Beetle", built on the contemporary Golf platform with styling recalling the original Type 1.

It remained in production through , being succeeded in by the more aggressively styled Beetle A5. Everything had to be designed to ensure parts could be quickly and inexpensively exchanged. The engine had to be air-cooled because, as Hitler explained, not every country doctor had his own garage ethylene glycol antifreeze was only just beginning to be used in high-performance liquid-cooled aircraft engines.

In general, radiators filled with water would freeze unless the vehicle was kept in a heated building overnight or drained and refilled each morning. The "People's Car" would be available to citizens of Nazi Germany through a savings scheme, or Sparkarte savings booklet , at Reichsmark, about the price of a small motorcycle.

The average weekly income was then around 32RM. In , three prototypes were running. The Type 32 was similar in design to the Type 12, but it had a flat-four engine. NSU's exit from car manufacturing resulted in the Type 32 being abandoned at the prototype stage.

In October , the first two Type 60 prototypes, known as the V1 and V2 V for Versuchswagen, or "test car" , were ready. In , testing began of three further V3 prototypes, built in Porsche's Stuttgart shop. A batch of thirty W30 development models, produced for Porsche by Daimler-Benz, underwent 2,, km of further testing in All cars had the distinctive round shape and the air-cooled, rear-mounted engine.

Included in this batch was a rollback soft top called the Cabrio Limousine. A further batch of 44 VW38 pre-production cars produced in introduced split rear windows; both the split window and the dash were retained on production Type 1s until The car was designed to be as simple as possible mechanically. The air-cooled 25 hp 19 kW cc motors' built-in oil cooler and flat-four engine configuration's superior performance was also effective for the German Afrika Korps in Africa's desert heat.

The suspension design used compact torsion bars instead of coil or leaf springs. The Beetle is nearly airtight and will briefly float. On 26 May , Hitler laid the cornerstone for the Volkswagen factory in Fallersleben. The model village of Stadt des KdF-Wagens was created near Fallersleben in Lower Saxony in for the benefit of the workers at the newly built factory. The factory produced another wartime vehicle: the Kommandeurswagen Typ 87 ; a Beetle body mounted on a 4WD Schwimmwagen chassis.

The Kommandeurswagen had widened fenders to accommodate its Kronprinz all-terrain tires. Much of the essential equipment had already been moved to underground bunkers for protection, which let production resume quickly after hostilities ended. Due to gasoline shortages late in the war, a few "Holzbrenner" Beetles were built powered by pyrolysis gas producers located under the front hood.

In occupied Germany, the Allies followed the Morgenthau plan to remove all German war potential by complete or partial pastoralization. As part of this, in the Industrial plans for Germany, the rules for which industry Germany was to be allowed to retain were set out. Mass production of civilian VW cars did not start until post-war occupation.

The Volkswagen factory was handed over by the Americans to British control in ; it was to be dismantled and shipped to Britain. Thankfully for Volkswagen, no British car manufacturer was interested in the factory; an official report included the phrases "the vehicle does not meet the fundamental technical requirement of a motor-car To build the car commercially would be a completely uneconomic enterprise.

Allied dismantling policy changed in late to mid, although heavy industry continued to be dismantled until In March , Herbert Hoover helped change policy by stating. There is the illusion that the New Germany left after the annexations can be reduced to a "pastoral state". It cannot be done unless we exterminate or move 25,, people out of it.

Hirst was ordered to take control of the heavily bombed factory, which the Americans had captured. His first task was to remove an unexploded bomb that had fallen through the roof and lodged itself between some pieces of irreplaceable production equipment; if the bomb had exploded, the Beetle's fate would have been sealed.

Knowing Germany needed jobs and the British Army needed vehicles. Hirst persuaded the British military to order 20, cars, and by March the factory was producing 1, cars a month in Army khaki, under the name Volkswagen Type 1 , which Hirst said "was the limit set by the availability of materials". During this period, the car reverted to its original name of Volkswagen and the town was renamed Wolfsburg.

The first 1, Type 1s were made in Following the British Army-led restart of production and Hirst's establishment of sales network and exports to Netherlands, former Opel manager and formerly a detractor of the Volkswagen Heinz Nordhoff was appointed director of the Volkswagen factory in Under Nordhoff, production increased dramatically over the following decade, with the one-millionth car coming off the assembly line by It has tolerable road-handling and is economical to maintain.

Although a small car, the engine has great elasticity and gave the feeling of better output than its small nominal size. There were other, less-numerous models, as well. The Type 18A, a fixed-top cabriolet, was produced by Austro-Tatra as a police and fire unit; were assembled between January and March On 17 February , when Beetle No. By , total production was over 16 million, and by 23 June , over 21 million had been produced.

Though extremely successful in the s, the Beetle was increasingly faced with stiff competition from more modern designs globally. The Japanese had refined rear-wheel-drive, water-cooled, front-engine small cars including the Datsun and Toyota Corona, whose sales in the North American market grew rapidly at the expense of Volkswagen in the late s. Honda introduced the N, based on the space-efficient transverse-engine, front-wheel-drive layout of the original Austin Mini, to the North American market in late , and upgraded the model to the Honda Civic in The Japanese "big three" would soon dominate compact auto sales in North America.

In Ford introduced its Pinto, which had some market impact as a low cost alternative. As the s came to a close, Volkswagen faced increasingly stiff competition from European cars as well. The Beetle was faced with competition from new designs like the Fiat and Renault 5, and more robust designs based on the Austin Mini layout such as the Superminis. German competitors, Ford and Opel also enjoyed strong sales of modern smaller cars like the Ford Escort and Opel Kadett. Volkswagen's attempts to boost the power of their air-cooled motor to meet the demands of higher highway speeds in the late s, then comply with new pollution control regulations, caused problems for reliability and fuel efficiency that impaired the reputation of the aging design.

Safety issues with the Beetle came under increasing scrutiny, culminating in the release of a rather scathing report. During the early s, sales of the Beetle in Europe and North America plummeted. None of these models, aimed at more upscale markets, achieved the level of success as the Beetle.

The over-reliance on a single model, now in decline, meant that Volkswagen was in financial crisis by It needed German government funding to produce the Beetle's replacement. Production lines at Wolfsburg switched to the new water-cooled, front-engined, front-wheel drive Golf designed by Giorgetto Giugiaro in , sold in North America at the time as the "Rabbit". The Golf would eventually become Volkswagen's most successful model since the Beetle.

The Golf would be periodically redesigned over its lifetime, entering its seventh generation in , with only a few components carried over between generations, while the Beetle had only minor refinements of its original design. The Golf did not kill Beetle production, nor did the smaller Polo which was launched a year later.

Production of the Beetle continued in smaller numbers at other German factories until 19 January , when mainstream production shifted to Brazil and Mexico: markets where low operating cost was an important factor. However, this shift in production did not completely end sales of the Beetle in Europe, although after this date sales of the Beetle in Europe were very low.

Beetle sedans were produced for U. The last Beetle was produced in Puebla, Mexico, in July Production in Brazil ended in , then started again in and continued until The Beetle outlasted most other cars which had adopted the rear air-cooled engine layout such as those by Subaru, Fiat, and General Motors. Porsche's series which originally used some Volkswagen sourced parts, continued to use the classic rear engine layout which later became water-cooled in the Porsche series, which remains competitive in the second decade of the 21st century.

By , over 21 million Type 1s had been produced, but by , annual production had dropped to 30, from a peak of 1. Each car included the 1. A mariachi band serenaded production of the last car. In Mexico, there was an advertising campaign as a goodbye for the Beetle. In one of the ads was a very small parking space on the street, and many big cars tried to use it, but could not. Another depicted the rear end of a Beetle the year Volkswagen was established in Mexico in the left side of the ad, reading "Erase una vez There were other ads with the same nostalgic tone.

In , Volkswagen prototyped a 1. Volkswagen made only two of these air-cooled boxer diesel engines not turbocharged , and installed one engine in a Type 1 and another in a Type 2. The Beetle featured a rear-located, rear-wheel drive, air-cooled four-cylinder, boxer engine in a two-door bodywork featuring a flat front windscreen, accommodating four passengers and providing luggage storage under the front bonnet and behind the rear seat — and offering a coefficient of drag of 0.

The bodywork attached with eighteen bolts to its nearly flat chassis which featured a central structural tunnel. Front and rear suspension featured torsion bars along with front stabilizer bar — providing independent suspension at all wheels. Certain initial features were subsequently revised, including mechanical drum brakes, split-window rear windows, mechanical direction-indicators and the non-synchronized gearbox.

Other features, including its distinctive overall shape, endured. Its engine, transmission, and cylinder heads were constructed of light alloy. An engine oil cooler located in the engine fan's shroud ensured optimal engine operating temperature and long engine life, optimized by a thermostat that bypassed the oil cooler when the engine was cold. Later models of the carburetor featured an automatic choke.

Engine intake air passed through a metallic filter, while heavier particles were captured by an oil bath. After , steering featured a hydraulic damper that absorbed steering irregularities. Indicative of the car's utilitarian design, the interior featured painted metal surfaces, a metal dash consolidating instruments in a single, circular binnacle, adjustable front seats, a fold-down rear seat, optional swing-out rear windows, front windows with pivoting vent windows, heating via air-to-air exchange manifolds operating off the engine's heat, and a windshield washer system that eschewed the complexity and cost of an additional electric pump and instead received its pressurization from the car's spare tire located in the front luggage compartment which was accordingly overinflated to accommodate the washer function.

Throughout its production, VW marketed the Beetle with a four-speed manual transmission. From and almost exclusively in Europe , VW offered an optional version of the Saxomat semi-automatic transmission: a regular 4-speed manual transaxle coupled to an electromagnetic clutch with a centrifugal clutch used for idle. Subsequently beginning in in Europe and in the United States , VW offered an optional semi-automatic transmission marketed as Automatic Stick Shift and also called AutoStick[citation needed] , which was a 3-speed manual coupled to an electro-pneumatic clutch and torque converter.

While the overall appearance of the Beetle changed little over its life span, it received over 78, incremental changes during its production. It was in that Wilhelm Karmann first bought a VW Beetle sedan and converted it into a four-seated convertible. After successfully presenting it at VW in Wolfsburg, production started in The convertible was more than a Beetle with a folding top. To compensate for the strength lost in removing the roof, the sills were reinforced with welded U-channel rails, a transverse beam was fitted below the front edge of the rear seat cushion, and the side cowl-panels below the instrument panel were double-wall.

In addition, the lower corners of the door apertures had welded-in curved gussets, and the doors had secondary alignment wedges at the B-pillar. The top was cabriolet-style with a full inner headliner hiding the folding mechanism and crossbars. In between the two top layers was 25 mm of insulation.

The rear window was tempered safety glass, and after , heated. Due to the thickness of the top, it remained quite tall when folded. To enable the driver to see over the lowered top, the inside rearview was mounted on an offset pivot. By twisting the mirror degrees on a longitudinal axis, the mirror glass would raise approximately 5. The convertible was generally more lavishly equipped than the sedan with dual rear ashtrays, twin map pockets, a visor vanity mirror on the passenger side, rear stone shields, and through , wheel trim rings.

Many of these items did not become available on other Beetles until the advent of the optional "L" Luxus Package of After a number of stylistic and technical alterations made to the Karmann cabriolet, corresponding to the many changes VW made to the Beetle throughout its history , the last of , cabriolets came off the production line on 10 January During this period, a myriad of changes were made throughout the vehicle beginning with the availability of hydraulic brakes and a folding fabric sunroof in The rear window of the VW Beetle evolved from a divided or "split" oval, to a singular oval.

The change occurred between October and March Beetles built during this time were known as a "Zwitter", or "hybrid", as they used the split-window bodyshell with oval-model chrome trim, vent windows and dashboard. The brake light function was transferred to new heart-shaped lamps located in the top of the taillight housings.

In , Volkswagen added 2 mm to the cylinder bore, increasing the displacement from 1, cc to 1, cc. This coincided with upgrades to various key components including a redesign of the crankshaft. This increased power from 30 hp 22 kW; 30 PS to 36 hp 27 kW; 36 PS and improved the engine's free revving abilities without compromising torque at lower engine speeds.

At the same time, compression ratios were progressively raised as, little by little, the octane ratings of available fuel was raised in major markets during the s and s. In , the separate brake lights were discontinued and were combined into a new larger taillight housing. The traditional VW semaphore turn signals were replaced by conventional flashing directional indicator lamps for North America.

For , the Beetle received what would become one of its more distinctive features, a set of twin chrome tailpipes. Models for North America gained taller bumper guards and tubular overrider bars. For , the Beetle received a revised instrument panel, and a larger rectangular rear window replaced the previous oval design.

For , significant technical advances occurred in the form of a new engine and transmission. The engine remained at cc but the power increased to 40 hp 30 kW; 41 PS primarily due to an increase in compression ratio to 7. The carburetor received an electric automatic choke and the transmission was now synchronized on all forward gears. The traditional semaphore turns signals were replaced by conventional flashing directional indicators worldwide. For , the Beetle received a mechanical fuel level gauge in place of the former fuel tap.

At the rear, larger tail lights were introduced incorporating a separate amber turn signal section to meet new European standards these turn signals remained red in the US market until The former hand-pump style windscreen washer was replaced by a new design using compressed air. A Schrader valve located on the washer fluid tank allowed the system to be charged at a filling station to the recommended 35 psi 2. The largest change to date for the Beetle was in the majority of the body stampings were revised, which allowed for significantly larger windows.

The result was a more open, airy, modern look. For , the big news was an optional new cc 50 hp 37 kW; 51 PS engine in lieu of the previous cc engine that had been the sole engine since Models so equipped carried a "" badge on the engine lid. The cc engine was standard for North America.

For , a yet-again larger-displacement engine was made available: cc, 53 hp 40 kW; 54 PS at 4, rpm. North America received the engine as standard equipment, but did not receive front disc brakes. These models were identified by a "Volkswagen" badge on the engine lid. The rear suspension was significantly revised including a widened track, softer torsion bars and the addition of a unique Z-configuration equalizing torsion spring. On US, UK and Ireland models, the generator output was increased from to watts, and the entire electrical system was upgraded from 6 volts to 12 volts.

The clutch disc also increased in size and changes were made to the flywheel. New equipment included a driver's armrest on the door and locking buttons on both doors. Safety improvements included two-speed windscreen wipers, reversing lights in some markets , and a driver's side mirror. In accord with the newly enacted US Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard , North American models received a dual-circuit brake system, the clear glass headlamp covers were deleted; the headlamps were brought forward to the leading edge of the front fenders, and the sealed-beam units were exposed and surrounded by chrome bezels.

The most noticeable of which were the new larger, higher mounted C-section bumpers. At the rear, new larger taillamps were adopted and were able to accommodate backup lamps, which were previously separate bumper-mounted units. Beetles worldwide received the '67 North American style vertical headlamp placement, but with replaceable-bulb headlamps compliant with ECE regulations rather than the US sealed beams. Other improvements were a new outside gas filler with spring-loaded flap, eliminating the need to open the trunk to refuel.

The fuel gauge was integrated with the speedometer and was now electrically-actuated rather than cable-operated. The windscreen washer was now pressured by the spare tire, which was to be maintained at a pressure of 42 psi 2. A pressure valve in the connecting hose closed airflow to the fluid reservoir if spare tire pressure fell below 30 psi 2. A ventilation system was introduced, which drew fresh air into the cabin from louvres on the front decklid. For improved shifting, the shift lever was shortened, stiffened and moved rearward by.

A number of safety improvements were made in order to comply with new American safety regulations: these included trigger-operated outside door handles, a secondary front hood latch, collapsing steering column, soft vent window latches, rotary glove compartment latch and instrument panel knobs labeled with pictographs. US models received a padded instrument panel that was optional in other markets. To meet North American head restraint requirements, VW developed the industry's first high-back bucket seat.

A new 3-speed semi-automatic gear box with torque converter and vacuum-operated clutch became available mid-production year. The semi-automatic models received a vastly improved semi-trailing-arm rear suspension also known as "Independent Rear Suspension" although the earlier swing axle Beetles were also independent and eliminated the need for the equalizing torsion spring.

This new rear suspension layout would eventually become an option on later models. Beetles equipped with the automatic were identified with a "VW Automatic" badge on the engine lid and a matching decal in the rear window. For , the only exterior change was the fuel filler flap no longer had a finger indentation due to a new interior-mounted fuel door release. In , A new "L" Luxus Package was introduced including, among other items, twin map pockets, dual rear ashtrays, full carpeting, a passenger-side visor vanity mirror, and rubber bumper moldings.

The optional cc engine now came with an engine lid having two rows of cooling louvers, while the convertible's engine lid gained two additional sets for a total of four. For North America, the cc engine was enlarged to cc engine and produced 57 hp 43 kW; 58 PS.

For , for the first time there were two Beetles, the familiar standard Beetle and a new larger version that was different from the windscreen forward. All Beetles received an engine upgrade: the optional cc engine was replaced by a cc version with twin-port cylinder heads and a larger, relocated oil cooler.

The new engine produced 60 hp 45 kW; 61 PS. The ventilation system was improved with the original dash-top vents augmented by a second pair aimed directly at the driver and passenger. For the first time the system was a flow-through design with crescent-shaped air exits fitted behind the rear quarter windows. Airflow could be increased via an optional 2-speed fan. The standard Beetle was now badged as the VW ; when equipped with the engine, it was badged S, to avoided confusion with the Type 3, which wore VW badges.

A new MacPherson strut front suspension was incorporated, similar to what was used in the Type 4, and the front track was widened. The new suspension layout allowed the spare tire to be positioned flat under the trunk floor, although the car had to be lengthened slightly to accomplish this. This also allowed a reduction in turning radius.

To gain additional trunk volume, the under-dash panel was lowered, allowing the fuel tank to be shifted rearward. From the windscreen back the big Beetle was identical to its smaller progenitor, except for having the semi-trailing arm rear suspension as standard equipment. Overall, the big Beetle was 50 mm longer in length and 35 mm wider and rode on a 20 mm longer wheelbase than the standard model.

Both Beetles were available with or without the L Package. The convertible was now based on the body. While it lacked the front disc brakes that normally accompanied the larger motor, it was fitted with brake drums that were slightly larger than the standard Beetle. With the Super Beetle being sold as the premium model in North America, the standard Beetle, while retaining the same cc engine, was stripped of many of its earlier features in order to reduce the selling price. An engine compartment socket for the proprietary VW Diagnosis system was also introduced.

The rear luggage area was fitted with a folding parcel shelf. A limited-edition Commemorative model was launched in celebration of the Beetle's passing the record of the Ford Model T as the world's most-produced automobile. In the U. In the engine bay, the oil-bath air cleaner gave way to a dry element filter, and the generator was replaced with an alternator. The changes to the cowl and windshield resulted in slight redesign of the front hood. The instrument panel, formerly shared with the standard Beetle, was all-new and incorporated a raised speedometer pod, rocker-style switches and side-window defrosters.

Front and rear deck lids were finished in matte black, as was all exterior trim with the exception of the chrome headlamp bezels. Inside were corduroy and leatherette high-bolstered sport seats and a small diameter three-spoke steering wheel with padded leather rim and a small red VW logo on the bottom spoke.

In some markets, the sport wheels in both 4. For , North American models received newly required 8. On the Super Beetle, the steering knuckle, and consequently the lower attachment point of the strut, was redesigned to improve handling and stability in the event of a tire blowout. A limited-edition Big Beetle was introduced based on the LS.

Available in unique metallic paint colors, the car featured styled-steel 5. Both were finished in metallic gold and featured styled-steel 4. Inside were brown corduroy and leatherette seats, loop-pile carpet, and padded four-spoke deluxe steering wheel. The Super Beetle Sun Bug included a sliding-steel sunroof. In , front turn indicators were moved from the top of the front fenders down into the bumper.

At the rear, the license plate light housing was now molded of plastic with a ribbed top surface. The injected engine received a new muffler and in California a catalytic converter. This necessitated a bulge in the rear apron under the rear bumper and replaced the distinctive twin "pea shooter" tailpipes with a single offset pipe, making injected models identifiable at a glance.

The received rack and pinion steering. Mid-year, the Love Bug was introduced for North America: based on the standard Beetle, it was available only in Phoenix Red or Ravenna Green both colors shared with the VW-Porsche with all exterior trim finished in matte black. A price leader, the Love Bug retailed for less than a standard Beetle.

To make up for the loss in North American markets, the standard Beetle was upgraded, regaining some of the features that were removed in In addition, the 2-speed ventilation fan was included, previously available in North America only on the larger Beetle. The automatic stickshift option was discontinued as well. This was the final model year for the Beetle sedan in North America.

The convertible was offered in a Champagne Edition in triple white with the padded deluxe steering wheel, burled elm-grain dash trim and mm wide sport wheels. Approximately 1, Champagne Editions were produced. In China they are classified as a subgroup of the Miao people. The Hmong traditions and legends indicate that they originated near the Yellow River region of China.

According to linguist Martha Ratliff, there is linguistic evidence to suggest that they have occupied some of the same areas of southern China for over 8, years. Evidence from mitochondrial DNA in Hmong—Mien—speaking populations supports the southern origins of maternal lineages even further back in time, although it has been shown that Hmong-speaking populations had comparatively more contact with northern East Asians than had the Mien.

The ancient town of Zhuolu is considered to be the birthplace of the widely proclaimed legendary Hmong king, Chi You. Today, a statue of Chi You has been erected in the town. The researchers posited a genetic relationship between Hmong-Mien peoples and Mon-Khmer people groups dating to the Last Glacial Maximum approximately , years ago.

Conflict between the Hmong of southern China and newly arrived Han settlers increased during the 18th century under repressive economic and cultural reforms imposed by the Qing dynasty. This led to armed conflict and large-scale migrations well into the late 19th century, the period during which many Hmong people emigrated to Southeast Asia.

The migration process had begun as early as the lateth century, however, before the time of major social unrest, when small groups went in search of better agricultural opportunities. The Hmong people were subjected to persecution and genocide by the Qing dynasty government.

Kim Lacy Rogers wrote: "In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, while the Hmong lived in south-western China, their Manchu overlords had labeled them 'Miao' 'barbarian' or 'savage' and targeted them for genocide when they defied being humiliated, oppressed, and enslaved.

According to the censuses, the number of 'Miao' in China was estimated to be about 9. The Miao nationality includes Hmong people as well as other culturally and linguistically related ethnic groups who do not call themselves Hmong. A number of Miao lineage clans are also believed to have been founded by Chinese men who had married Miao women.

These distinct Chinese-descended clans practice Chinese burial customs instead of Hmong style burials. The Hmong were instructed in military tactics by fugitive Chinese rebels. Chinese men who had married into Hmong clans have established several Hmong clans. Chinese "surname groups" are comparable to the Hmong clans which are patrilineal, and practice exogamy. Hmong women married Han Chinese men who pacified the Ah rebels who were fighting against the Ming dynasty, and founded the Wang clan among the Hmong in Gongxian county, of Sichuan's Yibin district.

Lauj clan in Northern Thailand is another example of a clan created through Han and Hmong intermarriage. A Han Chinese with the family name of Deng found another Hmong clan there as well. Jiangxi Han Chinese have held a claim as the forefathers of the southeast Guizhou Miao. Children were born to the many Miao women who had married Han Chinese soldiers in Taijiang before the second half of the 19th century.

Non-Han women such as the Miao became wives of Han soldiers. These soldiers fought against the Miao rebellions during the Qing and Ming dynasties and at that time Han women were not available. The origin of the Tunbao people can be traced to the Ming dynasty, when the Hongwu Emperor sent , Han Chinese male soldiers in to conquer Yunnan and the men married Yao and Miao women.

The presence of women presiding over weddings was a feature noted in "Southeast Asian" marriages, such as in when a Miao woman in Yunnan married a Chinese official. In Yunnan, a Miao chief's daughter married a scholar in the s who wrote that she could read, write, and listen in Chinese and read Chinese classics. The Sichuan Hmong village of Wangwu was visited by Nicholas Tapp who wrote that the "clan ancestral origin legend" of the Wang Hmong clan, had said that there were several intermarriages with Han Chinese and possibly one of these was their ancestor Wang Wu; there were two types of Hmong, "cooked", who sided with Chinese, and "raw", who rebelled against the Chinese.

The Chinese were supported by the Wang Hmong clan. Hmong people have their own terms for their subcultural divisions. The name and pronunciation "Hmong" is exclusively used by the White Hmong to refer to themselves, and many dictionaries use only the White Hmong dialect. The final consonants indicate with which of the eight lexical tones the word is pronounced. White Hmong and Green Hmong speak mutually intelligible dialects of the Hmong language, with some differences in pronunciation and vocabulary.

Voiceless nasals are not found in the Green Hmong dialect. Hmong groups are often named after the dominant colors or patterns of their traditional clothing, style of head-dress, or the provinces from which they come. These include the Flower Hmong or the Variegated Hmong Hmong Lenh or Hmong Hoa , so named because of their bright, colorful embroidery work called pa ndau or paj ntaub, literally "flower cloth". During this time, it was generally applied to people of the southern regions thought to be descendants of the San Miao kingdom dated to around the 3rd millennium BC.

The term does not appear again until the Ming dynasty — , by which time it had taken on the connotation of "barbarian. Not until the Qing dynasty — do more finely grained distinctions appear in writing. Even then, discerning which ethnic groups are included in various classifications can be problematic. This inconsistent usage of "Miao" makes it difficult to say for sure if Hmong and Mong people are always included in these historical writings.

Christian Culas and Jean Michaud note: "In all these early accounts, then, until roughly the middle of the 19th century, there is perpetual confusion about the exact identity of the population groups designated by the term Miao. We should, therefore, be cautious with respect to the historical value of any early associations. Linguistic evidence, however, places Hmong and Mong people in the same regions of southern China that they inhabit today for at least the past 2, years.

By the midth century, classifications become specific enough that it is easier to identify references to Hmong and Mong people. The term 'Miao' is used today by the Chinese government to denote a group of linguistically and culturally related people including the Hmong, Hmu, Kho Xiong, and A Hmao. The Hmong and Miao of China today believe they are one people with cultural and linguistic affiliations that transcend oceans and national boundaries.

The educated elites of the two groups maintain close transnational contacts with one another. The Hmong-Mien HM and Sino-Tibetan ST speaking groups are known as hill tribes in Thailand; they were the subject of the first studies to show an impact of patrilocality vs. We find a striking difference between Hmong and IuMien Mien-speaking groups: the Hmong are genetically different from both the IuMien and all other Thai groups, whereas the IuMien are genetically more similar to other linguistic groups than to the Hmong.

In general, we find less of an impact of patrilocality vs. MSY variation than previous studies. A potential explanation is that the ancestors of Thai HM groups were patrilocal, while the ancestors of Thai ST groups were matrilocal. Overall, these results attest to the impact of cultural practices on patterns of mtDNA vs. MSY variation. When Western authors came in contact with Hmong people, beginning in the 18th century, they referred to them in writing by ethnonyms assigned by the Chinese i.

This practice continued into the 20th century. Even ethnographers studying the Hmong people in Southeast Asia often referred to them as Meo, a corruption of Miao applied by Thai and Lao people to the Hmong. Although "Meo" was an official term, it was often used as an insult against the Hmong people, and it is considered to be derogatory. Introduced by Doua Vu and Assembly Member Sarah Reyes, District 31 Fresno , the bill encouraged changes in secondary education curriculum to include information about the Secret War and the role of Hmong people in the war.

Furthermore, the bill called for the use of oral histories and first-hand accounts from Hmong people who had participated in the war and who were caught up in the aftermath. Originally, the language of the bill mentioned only "Hmong" people, intending to include the entire community. Several Mong Leng activists, led by Dr.

Paoze Thao Professor of Linguistics and Education at California State University, Monterey Bay , drew attention to the problems associated with omitting "Mong" from the language of the bill. They noted that despite nearly equal numbers of Hmong Der and Mong Leng in the United States, resources are disproportionately directed toward the Hmong Der community. This includes not only scholarly research but also the translation of materials, potentially including the curriculum proposed by the bill.

Despite these arguments, "Mong" was not added to the bill. In the version that passed the assembly, "Hmong" was replaced by "Southeast Asians", a more broadly inclusive term. Paoze Thao and some others feel strongly that "Hmong" can refer to only Hmong Der people and does not include "Mong" Leng people. He feels that the usage of "Hmong" about both groups perpetuates the marginalization of Mong Leng language and culture.

Thus, he advocates the usage of both "Hmong" and "Mong" when referring to the entire ethnic group. Other scholars, including anthropologist Dr. Gary Yia Lee a Hmong Der person , suggest that "Hmong" has been used for the past 30 years to refer to the entire community and that the inclusion of Mong Leng people is understood.

Some argue that such distinctions create unnecessary divisions within the global community and will only confuse non-Hmong and Mong people trying to learn more about Hmong and Mong history and culture. As a compromise alternative, multiple iterations of "Hmong" are proposed. A Hmong theologian, Rev. Paul Joseph T. The ethnologist Jacques Lemoine has also begun to use the term H mong when referring to the entirety of the Hmong and Mong community. Some non-Chinese Hmong advocate that the term Hmong be used not only for designating their dialect group but also for the other Miao groups living in China.

They generally claim that the word "Miao" or "Meo" is a derogatory term, with connotations of barbarism, that probably should not be used at all. The term was later adopted by Tai-speaking groups in Southeast Asia where it took on especially insulting associations for Hmong people despite its official status.

In modern China, the term "Miao" does not carry these negative associations and people of the various sub-groups that constitute this officially recognized nationality freely identify themselves as Miao or Chinese, typically reserving more specific ethnonyms for intra-ethnic communication. During the struggle for political recognition after , it was members of these ethnic minorities who campaigned for identification under the umbrella term "Miao"—taking advantage of its familiarity and associations of historical political oppression.

Contemporary transnational interactions between Hmong in the West and Miao groups in China, following the Hmong diaspora, have led to the development of a global Hmong identity that includes linguistically and culturally related minorities in China that previously had no ethnic affiliation.

Scholarly and commercial exchanges, increasingly communicated via the Internet, have also resulted in an exchange of terminology, including Hmu and A Hmao people identifying as Hmong and, to a lesser extent, Hmong people accepting the designation "Miao," within the context of China.

Such realignments of identity, while largely the concern of economically elite community leaders reflects a trend towards the interchangeability of the terms "Hmong" and "Miao. Linguistic data show that the Hmong of the Peninsula stem from the Miao of southern China as one among a set of ethnic groups belonging to the Hmong—Mien language family. Linguistically and culturally speaking, the Hmong and the other sub-groups of the Miao have little in common.

Vietnam, where their presence is attested from the late 18th century onwards and characterized with both assimilation, cooperation and hostility, is likely to be the first Indochinese country into which the Hmong migrated. During the colonization of 'Tonkin' north Vietnam between and , a number of Hmong decided to join the Vietnamese Nationalists and Communists, while many Christianized Hmong sided with the French.

At the national census, there were 1,, Hmong living in Vietnam, the vast majority of them in the north of the country. The traditional trade in coffin wood with China and the cultivation of the Opium Poppy — both prohibited only in in Vietnam — long guaranteed a regular cash income. Today, converting to cash cropping is the main economic activity. As in China and Laos, there is a certain degree of participation of Hmong in the local and regional administration.

In the late s, several thousands of Hmong started moving to the Central Highlands and some crossed the border into Cambodia, constituting the first attested presence of Hmong settlers in that country. In , the Hmong in Laos numbered , Hmong settlement there is nearly as ancient as in Vietnam. After decades of distant relations with the Lao kingdoms, closer relations between the French military and some Hmong on the Xieng Khouang plateau were set up after World War II.

There, a particular rivalry between members of the Lo and Ly clans developed into open enmity, also affecting those connected with them by kinship. Clan leaders took opposite sides and as a consequence, several thousand Hmong participated in the fighting against the Pathet Lao Communists, while perhaps as many were enrolled in the People's Liberation Army. As in Vietnam, numerous Hmong in Laos also genuinely tried to avoid getting involved in the conflict in spite of the extremely difficult material conditions under which they lived during wartime.

After the Communist victory, thousands of Hmong from Laos had to seek refuge abroad see Laos below. Approximately 30 percent of the Hmong left, although the only concrete figure we have is that of , Hmong from Laos and Vietnam together seeking refuge in Thailand up to In the Hmong in Thailand numbered , The presence of Hmong settlements there is documented from the end of the 19th century.

Tidak hanya sekedar mendapatkan pelatihan, Viralea juga menuturkan ia pun pernah difasilitasi business matching dengan Kamar Dagang dan Ekonomi Indonesia KDEI Taipei yang dilakukan secara daring beberapa waktu lalu. Menurutnya, CPNE merupakan program komprehensif yang memberikan pendidikan ekspor terlengkap bagi para pelaku usaha. Karena tidak hanya sekedar belajar secara teori dan diberikan pelatihan, namun saya di bantu langsung bahkan waktu itu diajak mengunjungi Pelabuhan Tanjung Priok dan mendapatkan pelatihan simulasi ekspor," tambah Viralea.

Di sisi lain, keberhasilan Viralea Hadiana sebagai pelaku UMKM perempuan juga menunjukkan bahwa perempuan memegang peranan penting dalam menggerakkan roda ekonomi nasional. Data menunjukkan bahwa di tingkat usaha mikro, 52 persen dari 63,9 juta pelaku usaha mikro di Indonesia adalah perempuan. Sedangkan tingkat usaha kecil, terdapat 56 persen dari ribu usaha kecil pemiliknya perempuan dan untuk usaha menengah, 34 persen dari 44,7 ribu pelaku usahanya adalah perempuan.

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Financial Services Authority Policy in Increasing Investment Indonesian Capital Market tifs and Red Black Grompol Batik Motif, both of. Gambar Batik motif ceplok grompol Ubud, Indonesian Art, Batik Art, Batik Pattern, Real Estate Investing in Brushton, NY | Jay St. Hilaire. In terms of batik handicraft interpretation (Soegenkity, ), the motif is derived from the word Moreover, the Grompol means together or united.